Posts Tagged ‘Buddhi’

Darshan (Philosophy) II

Thursday, May 6th, 2010

Shad Darshan – Nyaya and Vaisheshika:


The other two philosophical systems of Hinduism, namely, Nyay (Nyaya) and Vaisheshik (Vaisheshika) are more or less scientific systems developed to understand God and His Creation simply because we cannot fully test or reproduce both of them in our laboratory systems. To understand all that we see, observe, feel, think, and experience with our five senses and four antahkarans (mind) the Vedic Hindu thinkers or philosophers had developed theses two alternative systems in ancient times. Nyay is a system of logic or rules whereas Vaisheshik is system of cosmology or particles (Kan or Kana), though the evolution of universe from Prakruti is elaborately discussed in Sankhya Shashtras. Historians of science have shown unawareness about the contribution of Hindu scriptures in the fields of logic, physics, mathematics, philosophy, language, sociology, psychology, cosmology, etc. or in science in general.


Nyaya or the system of logic was developed by rishi Gautam. According to Nyaya, obtaining the valid knowledge through logic helps to attain liberation. Nyaya philosophy describes 16 systems or points of understanding, called “Padārtha,” to extract “basic meanings” of any entity. These are: 1. Pramāna (evidences), 2. Prameya (theorem or analysis), 3. Samshaya (doubt or questioning), 4. Prayojana (aim, goal, or purpose), 5. Drashtānta (examples), 6. Siddhānta (conclusion or abstract), 7. Avayava (subdivisions, part, or sections), 8. Tarka (logic or hypothetical reasoning), 9. Nirnaya (descision, final verdict, or settlement), 10. Vāda (doctrine, principle, or arguments), 11. Jalpa (debate, hot discussion), 12. Vitanda (quibble or caviling), 13. Hetavābhāsa (gross purpose), 14. Chhala (fallacy or tricking), 15. Jāti (kind or descent), and 16. Nigrahasthāna (point of defeat). All 16 padarthas are further explored. For example, Nyaya school describes four types of reasoning or evidences (pramāna): A. Evidences in favor of validity of the knowledge are: direct perception (pratyaksh pramana), inference or guess work (anumāna pramana), comparative evidence (upamāna pramana), and verbal or testimonial evidence (shabda pramana). B. Evidences in favor of invalidity of the knowledge are: memory (smruti), doubt (samshaya), errors, variability, or vicissitudes (viparyāya), and hypothetical reasoning (tarka). All kinds of the evidences are further explored. For example: direct perception. It can also be of two kinds: laukika or sādhārana (ordinary or sensory), and alaukika or asādhārana (extra ordinary or extra sensory). Both are further explored. For example, ordinary perceptions can be divided into six categories, namely, auditory, tactile, visual, gustatory, olfactory, and mental. Extra ordinary perceptions are further divided into three varieties: sāmanya-lakshana (common sense or intuition), gnān-lakshana (calculated or knowledge based from the previous experience), and yogaja (ESP). Perceptions are also divided into: savikalpa (relative) and nirvikalpa (absolute).

This is just to have its idea. Voluminous information can be found from the Nyaya texts.


Vaisheshik system was developed by rishi Kanād, from whose name the particles got the name “Kan” or “Kana.” His teaching was that liberation can only be achieved or attained by thoroughly understanding the nature and our existence. Vaisheshika accepts the cosmology or the evolution of the Nature or Universe. Prakruti is considered to be the cause of cosmic evolution. Prakruti has three constituent qualities (guna), namely, sattva, rajas, and tamas in equilibrium. That is why it is also known as “trigunātmikā.” According to Vaisheshika, all objects in nature (Prakruti) are made of tiniest, indivisible, invisible, indestructible, and eternal particles that are neither created nor destroyed (meaning they were there at the beginning of the creation and they will be there at the end of dissolution) and are called “paramānu.” They are like elementary particles of modern physics. Paramanus make anu. Two paramanu make one dvyanuka. Two, three, four, and more dvyanuka make one tryanuka, chaturanuka, and so on. These anu possess continuous vibratory motion which can be regarded as the spin or wave function. These paramanus are distinct from the soul. Each atomic substances has individual (vishesha) characteristics which distinguishes them from other non-atomic substances (dravyas), such as time (kāl), three dimensional space (dig, dishā) (directions or dimensions), soul (ātmā or ātman), and mind (manas). Vaisheshika has definitions for, ākāsh, time, and space. They have no lower constituents, meaning they are elementary. (Vaisheshika Sutra: 2.1.27-31) The qualities of akash are: sound, number, dimension, distinctness (individuality or separateness), conjunction, and disjunction. (Vaisheshika Sutra: 7.1.22) Time marks past, present, and future; succession, lateness and earliness. (Vaisheshika Sutra: 2.2.6) Time marks beginning, persistence, and end. (Vaisheshika Sutra: 2.2.9) Space is the cause of directions and dimensions between two objects. Vaisheshika clearly defines and describes the principle of cause (kāran) and effect (kārya).

Time can flow at different rates for different observers. Time and space are not absolute. Space and time are relative. There exist countless universes with their own Brahmā, Vishnu, and Mahesh. The universal is taken to be timeless and ubiquitous. Whatever can be defines with respect to space and time cannot be a universal. The processes that mark the passage of time on an object would thus be relative. It is only the universals which are true for all time and space are absolute or transcendental. The only such universals are Brahm and Parabrahm. These ideas are elaborated in the Purans, Agama Shashtras, and in the books such as Yoga-Vashishtha.

Substances can be grouped according to their actions or activities, common characteristics, specific characteristics, and their relationships with the cause and effect. According to Vaisheshika, there are six basic categories (padārtha) associated with reality: dravya (substance), guna (quality or characteristic), karma (motion or actions), sāmānya (common or general), vishesha (specific), and samavāya (inherent or comparative).

Dravyas include 9 basic realities, namely, Pruthwi (earth or solid), Jal (water or liquid), Tej (light or fire), Vayu (air or gas), Akash (ether or void), Desh or Dishā (place or the three dimensional space), Kal (time), Mana (mind), and Atma (soul or spirit).

Seventeen kinds of gunas (qualities or characteristics) of objects are originally described. They are: Rupa (appearance or form), Rasa (taste), Gandh (smell), Sparsh (feel or touch), Sankyā (number), Parimāna (dimensions, size, or quantity), Pruthakatva (individuality, separateness, or isolation), Samyoga or sanjog (conjugation), Vibhāga (parts, divisions, or disjunctions), Paratva (remoteness, farness or superiority), Aparatva (nearness or inferiority), Buddhi (intelligence or judgment), Sukha (happiness or pleasure), Dukha (unhappiness or pain), Ichchhā (desire), Dvesha (aversion or animosity), Prayatna (effort –  easy or hard).

Karma means action, activity, motion, or work done. It has four features: Akash (in space or in vacuum), Kāl (time), Dik or Dishā (direction), and Atman (inherent – size, magnitude, etc).

Body in Hinduism VIII

Monday, February 15th, 2010

Sharir – Tattvas Part III (contd.):

Prans – in General I

According to Hinduism, the structural body (sthul sharir) of the jiv consists of five gross (sthul) elements called Panch-bhuts, namely, Pruthvi, Jal, Tej, Vāyu, and Ākāsh.

The functional body (sukshma sharir) of the jiv consists of nineteen elements: Five motor organ systems called Panch-karmendriyas, namely, speech organs – Vāk, upper extremities – Pāni, lower extremities – Pād, excretory organs – Pāyu, and reproductory organs – Upastha.; Five sensory organs systems called Panch-gnanendriyas, namely, ear – Karna, skin – Tvak, Eyes – Chakshu, Tongue – Jihvā, and Nose – Ghran; Four psyches called Antahkarans, namely, Man, Buddhi, Ahamkar, and Chitt; and five vital functions or processes called Panch-Prans, namely, Prān, Apān, Vyān, Samān, and Udān. Five prans are part of the five subtle elements called Panch-vishays or five tanmatras, namely, sound – Shabda, touch – Sparsh, light – Rup (Roop), taste – Ras (Rasa), and smell – Gandh.

Panch-prans are grouped under a common heading or common noun “pran.” Prans are important subtle elements of the body. They are important for sustaining the life. Just as Panch-vishays and Panch-tanmatras, Panch-prans are also considered as five subtle elements. As such, Panch-Vishays are not elements but they are processes of perceiving sensory stimuli by five types of sensory organ systems. They are neurological processes by which the recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli are effected or resulted. Panch-vishays are also considered as the objects of enjoyments for the jiv via body. Similarly, Panch-prans are also physiological, but vital, processes for sustaining the life. Because of their subtleness, in Hinduism, both the panch-vishays and panch-prans are categorized under the heading of Tanmatras.

Hindu scriptures describe that, five prans are like five flames of one single fire collectively called as “pran”. Of all the 24 elements, pran is the main vital force of the body that is necessary for the life, through which all the functions of the functional body and its organs are carried out. From the Upanishadic story of pran one can easily conclude that pran is life of the body. So, could it be the soul (jiv)? From the ancient time Hinduism knows and explains that the pran, the vital force of the body, is different than jiv (soul), the life force of the body. Jiv is ontologically different entity than the pran. Both prān and jiv (soul) are quite distinct and different entities. So, prān as an element is prān and cannot be translated as “soul” or “jiv”. Pran (the proper noun) is also the name of one of the five prans. It represents the group of five prans. So, just like other proper names, Pran should not be translated. Sometimes pran, as an element, is translated as “vāyu,” “breath,” “energy,” etc. These kind of explanatory translations misrepresent the pran. So, it should also be avoided. Similarly, Apan, Vyan, Udan, Saman are also proper nouns or proper names and should not be translated also,


Prān and jiv (soul) are two ontologically distinct entities. Prān is decayable, destructible, able to cease, or able to stop functioning, whereas, jiv is eternal and sustain forever, not destructible, and not decayable. Jiv is called the knower of the pran. Prān is the vital force of the body that regulates other body processes. Without pran, jiv would leave the body instantaneously. Without pran life cannot sustain. Therefore, prān has become almost synonymous with the jiv. Hinduism describes 10 Prāns – five Prans and five Upa-prāns. Five Prans are: Prān (prāna), Apān (apāna), Vyān (vyāna), Samān (samāna) and Udān (udāna). Five Upa-prans are: Nāg (Naga), Kurm (Koorma), Krikar (Krikara), Devdatt (Devadatta) and Dhananjay (Dhananjaya). Prāns are superior to the Antahkarans (or mind in general) and to all the other elements derived from Mahattattva. When the new body is created around the soul or jiv, among the other non-divine things, prans are the first to enter or appear in the body and last to go. Dhananjay pran remain for a while even after death and is the last one to leave the body.

Chhandogya Upanishad describes Pran as the oldest and the greatest of all the functional elements of the body. “yo ha vai jyeṣṭha ca śreṣṭha cha veda jyeṣṭhaś cha ha vai śreṣṭhaś cha bhavati | prāo vāva jyeṣṭhaś cha śreṣṭhaś cha ||” Meaning, “He who knows what is the oldest and greatest becomes himself the oldest and greatest. The pran, indeed, is the oldest and greatest.” (Chhandogya Upanishad: 5.1.1.)

Prāns appear in the body first then the Antahkaran develops. After chitt (the site of basal instincts), ahamkar (self or ego) is evolved. Then, man and buddhi are evolved. During the deep sleep, antahkarans (mind) becomes inactive but prāns still remain active and functional. Prans play major vital role in the body compared to antahkarans (mind). Without cognitive functions (functions of antahkaran) a person can still survive or remain alive but without vital functions (functions of prans) the person surely dies.

Body in Hinduism IV

Sunday, January 24th, 2010

Sharir – Tattvas Part I: 

Mahattattva and Ahamkar

Hinduism describes three types of body of jiv. On liberation jiv leaves its three types of body and goes to the abode of God called Brahmdhām. For souls those are not liberated remain attached to their Kāran Sharir (causal body) and is absorbed within Māyā. This kāran sharir is of a form of avidyā and carries accumulated deeds (sanchit karmas) of the jiv. The jiv and its kāran sharir have eternal relationship. On creation, those jivs that are not liberated from the cycle of birth and death and have resided in Māyā along with their kāran sharir get various types of bodies of organisms or creatures including plants and animals, according to their individual karmas, by God’s will. Just as the judge decides the final outcome of the case and sets the reward for the defendant and the punishment to be inflicted on a convicted person after consideration or liberation, God decides which jiv gets which kind of body depending on its deed or karma. This is the reason why, in Hinduism, God is also described as “karma-fal-pradātā”, meaning giver of the fruits of karmas. Both, the Sukshma and Sthul bodies are intimately associated and remained within Kāran body, just as a tree is remained within its seed.

Hinduism also describes that the body of a jiv consists of 24 different elements as enumerated in previous part. These 24 elements are not eternal because they are derived from three types of Ahamkārs, which in turn are derived from Mahattattva. Mahattattva is also not eternal. It is derived from Pradhān-Prakruti, which in turn is derived from Mul-prakruti or Mahāmāyā. According to Hinduism, this Māyā is eternal. Now, let us discuss some of the elements of the body in further detail.


Mahattattva is the primordial form of universe (brahmand). The entire world inherently resides in a subtle form within mahattattva, just as a whole tree resides in a seed or an entire human body resides in an embryo. Mahattattva is like the matter in the fireball from which the whole Brahmānd (Universe) is evolved. It is very bright or luminous (prakāshmān), crystal clear (swachha), without any deformities (nirvikār), without any kind of disturbances or activities meaning quiet (shānt), and is extremely neutral in qualities or gunas (shuddha sattvamaya). It is created from Pradhānprakruti and is a source of 51 elements, namely, three kinds of ahamkars (the source of all other elements), fourteen deities of indriyas and antahkarans, four antahkarans, ten indriyas, ten prans, panch-bhuts and panch-tanmatras. From Mahattattva three types of Ahamkār are evolved and from Ahamkars the 24 elements, the constituents of whole Brahmānd (Universe), are evolved. Mahattattva and chitt are indifferent (abhed). Just as Mahattattva is the primordial form of universe, Chitt is the primordial form of body (sharir). Just as the universe is evolved from Mahattattva, whole body of living organism is evolved from Chitt.


Ahamkar is evolved from Mahattattva. It is of 3 types. Ahamkār is equivalent to the primordial matter in three forms from which the remaining elements of the universe (Brahmānd) are evolved. Ahamkar is “trigunātmak” meaning, it carries the three intrinsic or inherent properties, qualities, or attributes of Māyā, namely, Sattvagun, Rajogun, and Tamogun. By nature ahamkar is quiet (without any internal activities) or passive (shānt), dense (ghor), and totally ignorant or without any physical or cognitive activity (vimudh). Ahamkār is the cause of gross and subtle physical elements (bhuts); indriyas, antahkarans, and their deities; and prāns.

A. Sāttvik Ahamkār:

The main characteristic of sāttvik-gun (sattvagun) is purity, awareness, wakefulness, goodness, neutrality or indistinctiveness, balance, tranquility, wisdom, knowledge, etc. From Sattvik ahamkar the man and the presiding deities (also called Pratyādhi or Devatās) of the indriyas, divine or higher elements, are evolved.

B. Rājas Ahamkār:

The main characteristic of rājas-gun (rajogun) is passion, incoherence, cloudiness, lack of clarity, lacking harmony, lacking connection, impurity, unintelligibility, etc. From Rajas ahamkar ten indriyas, Buddhi, and prāns, basic functional elements, are evolved.

C. Tāmas Ahamkār:

The main characteristic of tāmas-gun (tamogun) is darkness, unconsciousness, passiveness, emptiness, ignorance, etc. From Tamas ahamkar five bhuts (gross elements), and five tanmātrās (subtle elements), basic structural elements, are evolved.

Body in Hinduism III

Thursday, January 14th, 2010

Sharir – Sthul, Sukshma, and Karan

Hinduism describes that the non-liberated soul are born (jiv) in “Mrutyu Lok” – the realm of the universe where life exists. They born, live, and die in this realm (lok), so, it is called Mrutyu (death) lok. Scientists have found that life can sustain even in the most extreme or harsh conditions. This is because of the superb structural and functional engineering of the body. Thus, body is an important unit of living being. In Hinduism, body is known as sharir, deh, tanu, or tan (ta´n). The Sanskrit word “tan (ta´n)” rhymes with man (ma´n means mind) and dhan (dha´n means money or wealth). Middle Persian language (3rd to 7th century BCE) also used to have word tan (ta´n) for the body. Hinduism describes all living beings have three kinds of body, namely, Sthul (gross), Sukshma (subtle or psychological), and Karan (causal). This body of living beings is consisting of 24 physical entities, called tattvas.

1. Sthul sharir: It is a gross physical body of the soul or jiv. Sthul body is made of different parts and organ systems called “Ang” and “Upāng” in Sanskrit. For the lower animals and microbes, their gross body is microscopic and they have tiny angs and upangs. Out of 24 elements, the sthul body of living beings consists of five gross elements known as Panch-bhuts. They are: Pruthvi, Jal, Tej, Vayu, and Akash. These five bhuts are created from Tāmas Ahamkār, which in turn is created, along with Rājas and Sātvik Ahamkārs, from Mahattattva. Mahattattva, which is equivalent to Chitt, is the primordial element of the body. Sthul sharir is perceptible by our five senses. According to Hinduism, an important function or the main purpose of Sthul sharir is to gain the ultimate knowledge of the Truth, to enjoy the bliss of God and God related spiritual pleasure in this very life, and to transcend to the abode of God after the death. But because of its nature of experiencing happiness and sorrow of panchvishays it has become an object or vehicle for Bhog-vilās (worldly pleasures) causing more attachments to them, instead of achieving moksh, detaching from worldly pleasures, or achieving the highest spiritually enlightened state.

2. Sukshma sharir: It is subtle, psychological or functional body. For higher animals it is psyche or mental body for the soul. It is not perceptible by our senses or sensory organs but its existence can be inferred and experienced in our day to day life. For the lower animals and plants sukshma sharir is functional and can be understood by their intelligence and activities related to survival and feeling of pleasure and pain, such as, food gathering, cell division and multiplication, mating, hibernation, running away from danger and developing bodily resistance against harsh environment, experiencing shock, sadness, crying, etc. Sukshma sharir carries with it the basic instincts for the protection and survival of a living organism, such as āhār (to eat food), nindrā (to sleep), bhay (to fear), maithun (to procreate), sukh (to feel pleasure), and dukh (to feel plain). In the modern time of luxuries we still feel unhappiness in our life. In the modern time of comfort we still feel that our world’s peace is at stake. This is because we are still harboring, in our sukshma sharir, the vices, such as, lust (kām), avarice (vāsanā), anger (krodh), greed (lobh), egotism (mad), infatuation (moh), jealousy (irshā), enviousness (matsar), hope (āshā), deep and intense desire or crave (ishnā, trishnā or trushnā), grudge or animosity (ver), etc. We create our own mental body around us. For example, I am such and such person of such and such race, with such and such name, with such and such nationality, with such and such skin color, with such and such qualifications, with such and such social and monetary status, and such and such creed. I am doctor, engineer, actor, or businessmen, etc. I am rich or poor. I am brother or sister, father or mother, uncle or aunt, etc. Even animals, tiny creatures, and microscopic organisms also create their own such mental (sukshma) body around their soul and that is why they recognize their kind and also stay, mingle, and mate with their kinds. When we call an animal by its name it will look at us and respond, because, the animal has created a mental body around its soul. Our sexual orientation, irrespective of our chromosomal, hormonal, or physical orientation is the result of our mental (sukshma) body. A common person may think of himself as a king and a king may think of himself as a common person and behave accordingly because of his sukshma body. Sukshma sharir consists of rest of the 19 elements, namely, five Prāns, Vishays, or Tanmatras; ten Indriyas, four Antahkarans, namely, Man, Buddhi, Chitt, and Ahamkar.

Panch-prān-mano-buddhihi dashendriya-samanvitam, a-panchikrut-bhutotham sukshma-angam bhog-sādhanam.

Man (Mana) and Buddhi are part of sukshma or subtle body. Sometimes Ahamkar and Chitt are not included as part of sukshma sharir, which makes the total of 17 elements for sukshma sharir. The reason may be, Hinduism also describes that both Chitt and Mahattattva has indifference (abhedpunu). Because, just as Mahattattva is the primordial form and cause of three kinds of celestial body of Ishwar, namely, Virāt, Sutrātmā, and Avyākrut; Chitt also is the primordial form and cause of three kinds of terrestrial body of  Jiv, namely, Sthul, Sukshma, and Kāran. If this is the case, then chitt obviously, as a cause of other bodily elements, could possibly the part of kāran sharir. From chitt, three types of Ahamkār are evolved and from ahamkārs rest of the 24 elements are evolved. Thus, ahamkar would also become the part of kāran sharir. Probably, because of this reason both Ahamkār and Chitt might not have been included, by some, in sukshma or subtle body, instead they may be included as a part of kāran or causal body. In short, Antahkarans – man, buddhi, ahamkar, and chitt (mind or psych as a whole) is the cause of attachment and detachment with the worldly objects and their relatives. “Man eva manushyam kāranam bandh mokshayoho.”

3. Kāran sharir: Hinduism has described Kāran sharir around our soul. It seems to be, the karan sharir of the soul has not been described before by any other religion except Hinduism. Kāran sharir is a causal body which is the sole cause for the gross and subtle bodies in the next birth of the soul that is not liberated or detached from the causal body. Causal body carries the information or knowledge acquired during the previous births. The infatuation and intense or deep desires for the worldly objects and pleasures, called vāsanā, goes along with it. Soul is firmly attached to this causal body or kāran sharir. Kāran sharir consists elementally of Māyā, so it has all the characteristics of Māyā. It is described to have attributes like, anādi (without the beginning and end), avidyā (ignorant in nature), and anirvāchya (indescribable or inexplicable). On death the sthul and sukshma bodies become “dust unto dust” or parts of natural physical elements. But the causal body or kāran sharir, after death, goes with the non-liberated soul (māyānvit meaning covered with maya) wherever the soul goes, unless, the soul is completely detached or freed from it. Once the soul is completely detached from its causal body made of Māyā, it goes to the abode of God called Brahmdhām.  This liberation of the soul is known, in Hinduism, as final redemption or “Ātyantik moksh”. Thus, final redemption in Hinduism is the detachment of soul from its three bodies consisting of maya and its attributes. It also means liberation forever from the cycle of birth and death, also known as Samsār chakra, because the soul has never have to come back to world again except for the God’s wish.

Body in Hinduism II

Monday, January 11th, 2010

Sharir – 24 Elements (Tattvas)

As we have seen previously that Hinduism believes in the field-fielder (KshetraKshetragna) theory. Prakruti is the field and Purush is its fielder. Similarly, body is a field (kshetra) and the soul is its fielder (kshetragna). According to Sānkhya scriptures, Prakruti or the nature consists of 24 physical entities or elements (tattvas), whereas, Purush, also known as Ishwar, is a quite distinct eternal entity or ontological element (tattva). Similarly, body, being the part of nature, also consists of 24 elements, whereas, soul or jiv is ontologically quite distinct eternal entity from the body. Both, Prakruti or body and Purush or jiv, are characteristically quite different from each other. One is mortal (nāshvant), decayable, destructible, “trigunātmak” (having three gunas or properties of maya), full of ignorance, etc. The other is imperishable or non-aging (ajar), immortal (amar), indestructible (achhedya), indivisible and impenetrable (abhedya), full of knowledge or knowledgeable (gnātā), subtle (sukshma), etc. When jiv behaves as united or intermingled with its body and Purush is intermingled with Prakruti, it is their combined or inseparable form (anvay swarup). When jiv is behaves as quite distinct from its three kinds of body (sthul, sukshma, and kāran) and Purush or Ishwar remain quite distinct from its three kinds of body (virāt, sutrātmā, and avyākrut) body, it is their distinct eternal form (vyatirek swarup).

These 24 elements are as follows:

1. Five gross elements (called Panch-bhuts): Pruthvi, Jal, Tej, Vayu, and Akash. They are explained and translated in English as Earth, Water, Fire or Light, Air or Gas, and Space or Sky, respectively. But this translation is misleading. Rather, they should be translated as they are.

Five Bhuts (pronounced as Bhoots) are five basic structural elements. They are derived from Tāmas Ahamkār – one of the three types of Ahamkārs. The three Ahamkars, namely, Sātvik Ahamkār, Rājas Ahamkār, and Tāmas Ahamkār are created from Mahattattva which is in turn created from Pradhan-Prakruti.

2. Five subtle elements (called Panch-Tanmātrās, PanchVishays, or Panch Prāns): Five subtle or microscopic elements are physical elements at the subatomic level, for example, tanmatras, and physiological elements at the bimolecular level, for example, prans.

Five subtle physical elements are: sound (Shabda), touch (Sparsh), sight/light (Roop), taste (Ras), and smell (Gandh). Each subtle element is a part or meter (mātrā) of each gross element. For example, sound (Shabda) is part (matra) of Ākāsh/Vyom and its main receiving organ is ear, touch (Sparsh) is part (matra) of Vayu/Marut/air and its main receiving organ is skin, sight/light (Roop) is part (matra) of Tej/light and its main receiving organ is eye, taste (Ras) is part (matra) of Aapa/Jal/water/liquid and its main receiving organ is tongue, and smell (Gandh) is part (matra) of Kshiti/Pruthvi/solid and its main receiving organ is nose. Similarly, each vishay is carried by each tanmātrā. Thus, tanmatras are akin to carrier particles of science.

Hinduism has also described five functional or physiological processes at the biomolecular level as five subtle elements, which are collectively known as prāns. Five prāns are: Prān (also spelled as Prāna), Apān (also spelled as Apāna), Vyān also spelled as Vyāna), Samān (also spelled as Samāna) and Udān (also spelled as Udāna). Prans as vital processes are as such not physical elements but as life sustaining entities or forms of energies they are also considered as elements. Along with five prāns, five upa-prāns (pronounced as oopa-praans) are also described in Hinduism. Five upa-prans are: Nāg (also spelled as Naga), Kurm (also spelled as Koorma), Krikara, Devdatt (also spelled as Devadatta) and Dhananjay (also spelled as Dhananjaya)

Five Tanmātrās are five basic carrier elements of vishays to their respective senses. Just as panch-bhuts, panch-tanmatras are also derived from Tāmas Ahamkar, but Prāns are derived from Rājas Ahamkar.

3. Five motor or executive organ systems (called Karmendriyas – (Karma-Indriyas): speech organ (Vāk, Vāni, or Mukh), hands or working organs (Pāni or Hasta), legs or locomotors organ (Pād), excretory organ (Pāyu), and reproductory organ (Upastha).

4. Five sensory organ systems (called Gnanendriyas – (Gnan Indriyas): organ for sound (ear – Karna-Indriya), organ for touch (skin – Tvak or Sparsh-Indriya), organ for seeing (Eyes – Chakshu-Indriya), organ for taste (Tongue – Jihvā or Swad-Indriya), and organ for smell (Nose – Nāsikā or Ghran-Indriya).

Ten Indriyas (five types of motor organs and five types of sensory organs) are derived from Rājas Ahamkar.

5. Four intellectual systems or functional operating units (collectively called Antahkaranantah + karana: inner operative or executive instruments): They are: Man or Mana, Buddhi, Ahamkār, and Chitt. Chitt is equivalent to Mahattattva of the universe. Just as Mahattattva is primordial form of universe, Chitt is primordial form of body. Chitt is first to appear or develop in the body. Ahamkar is derived from Chitt. Ahamkar is of three kinds: Satvik, Rajasik, and Tamasik. Mana is derived from Sātvik Ahamkar. Buddhi is derived from Rājas Ahamkar.

Thus, five bhuts, five tanmatras, ten prans (five prans and five upa-prans), ten indriyas, four antahkarans, and fourteen presiding deities (devatās) of indriyas (namely, Dis, Vāta, Surya, Varun, Ashvins are for gnanendriyas; Vahni, Indra, Upendra, Mrityu, and Prajapati are for karmendriyas; and Chandra, Prajapati, Rudra, Kshetragna are for antahkarans) are all derived from three Ahamkars which in turn are derived from Mahattattva. Thus, Mahattattva is the primordial form of universe. It is like the matter in the fireball from which the whole Brahmānd (Universe) is evolved. This could be the reason why Vedas and Upanishads describe Mahattattva as Hiranyagarbha or the Golden Embryo.

All of the above physical elements that constitute body and universe, according to Hinduism, are part of Maya – one of the five fundamental eternal philosophical elements. The soul or jiv itself makes an ontologically quite distinct fundamental eternal philosophical element. According to Hinduism, all of the above physical elements are considered incapable of doing anything without soul or jiv. And soul or jiv is considered incapable of doing anything without God. God resides in the soul.